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Biotech/Biomedical: Most Popular Articles

These articles are the most popular over the last month.
10 Examples of Agricultural Biotechnology
A list of agricultural applications for biotechnology research.
Stem Cell Research: Weighing Both Sides of the...
A discussion of the pros and cons in the ethical debate over embryonic stem cell research and biomedical research using other types of stem cells. Page 2.
What's an Enzyme, and What Does It Do?
An explanation of what enzymes are, their basic structure, and how they function in cellular processes.
Everyday Uses for Enzymes
A list of common products of enzyme biotechnology that are used every day in and around the home, such as paper products, detergents, textiles and foods and beverages. These household items are the result of commercialization of natural and recombinant enzymes produced by genetic protein engineering.
How to Make a TAE Buffer in 3 Steps
Simple instructions on making stock and working solutions of Tris-acetate-EDTA (TAE) buffer for gel electrophoresis.
Make Sodium Citrate Buffer
Six simple steps to make sodium citrate buffer for RNA isolation or antigen detection.
Restriction Enzymes Explained
An explanation of a special class of enzymes known as the restriction endonucleases.
Enzyme Kinetics: What Is Specific Activity?
A definition of specific activity as it applies to proteins and enzyme catalyzed biochemical reactions.
Differences Between siRNA and miRNA
Is there a difference between small interfering RNA (siRNA) and micro RNA (miRNA)?
What Are GMOs, and Why Do Opponents Say They're...
GMOs are making news nearly every day and issues surrounding their safety are a source of ongoing debate in the food and biotechnology industry. Read about what GMOs are and why they are a source of bioethical controversy.
Can Genetically Modified Food Feed the World?
Advocates for genetic engineering of crops used for food point to benefits such as providing better and more nutritious, potentially solving world hunger by increasing crop yields, fortifying foods to ensure the poor are getting proper nutrition. However, genetically modified (GM) foods have been available since the mid-nineties. Has their adoption really impacted world hunger? What's really driving the rapid adoption of GM food and is it part of the answer to feed a hunger world?
Methods of Protein Purification
Methods of protein purification for biotechnology laboratory applications.
What's the Big Concern with GM Food?
Although genetically modified (GM) food has been on supermarket shelves for almost 15 years, there is still extensive controversy about whether it is safe. Anti-GM group continue to sound the alarm regarding its potential risks dangerous. Why is there such controversy about GM food and crops and is there still a reason to be concerned about its safety? Take a look at this article to get an overview of what is driving this discussion.
7 Essential Tools for Protein Engineering
Essential laboratory procedures for genetic engineering. Molecular genetics techniques commonly used in biotechnology research that enable gene cloning.
Enzymes Used in the Dairy Industry
A description of the types of enzymes used in the dairy industry and their role in the production of cheese, yogurt and other food products.
Make a Phosphate Buffer in 8 Easy Steps
Follow these instructions on how to make phosphate buffers for biological applications at near neutral pH, or adapt them for making any other buffer using a weak acid / conjugate base pair.
What Are GMOs and How Are They Made?
If you want to understand the basic procedure for genetically engineering plants and animals, take a look at this article.
How do You Participate as a Test Subject in a...
Links to websites listing current and upcoming drug trials and how to become a participating subject. In addition, some sites contain new drug approval news, information on drug interactions, and clinical research job listings.
How PCR Works
Learn the basic theory behind the polymerase chain reaction, or PCR technique for making multiple copies of a gene from a sample of DNA.
DNA Sequencing Methods
Different DNA sequencing methods described.
What are Transcription Factors?
Transcription factors are important molecules, usually proteins, involved in controlling gene expression by RNA polymerase. In eukaryotic cells they bind to promoter regions on the DNA.
siRNA
What is siRNA, or small interfering RNA and how is it used as a molecular genetics research tool in the process called RNA interference?
World's Largest Biotech Hubs
Looks at the details of the two regions with the highest density of biotech companies and most people working in biotech—the San Francisco Bay and Boston, Massachusetts regions. How do these two regions compare in terms of the types of biotech companies, size of biotech communities, and amount of biotech investment?
3 Ways to Prepare a TBE Buffer
Simple instructions on how to make stock and working solutions of tris-borate-EDTA (TBE) buffer for gel electrophoresis separation of DNA.
Make a Tris Buffer
Tris is a chemical with basic properties, having a pKa of 8.1. It can be used to buffer solutions from drastic pH changes, keeping them in the pH range of 7.0 to 9.0. Make any Tris-HCl buffer in this pH range, at any molarity using these simple steps.
How is Titer Determined?
A simple explanation of how titer is determined, during bioproduct production in the biomedical industry, for antibodies, other proteins and other biological substances.
Top 5 Reasons E. coli is used for Gene Cloning
Five reasons the microorganism E. coli is so widely used in protein engineering and genetic research.
RFLP
A description of the molecular technique known as RFLP and brief explanation of the theory behind the methodology.
Pursuing a Career in Science and Law
The high demand for legal professionals with science and technology backgrounds is explained and career expectations for individuals studying science and law are discussed.
Proteins
A brief explanation of what proteins are, their composition and the many roles they play in cellular processes.
Six Types of Phytoremediation
Descriptions for six different types of phytoremediation.
Understanding the Rise of Genetically Modified...
Starting with the launch of the Flavr Savr Tomato, the first genetically modified organism (GMO) approved for sale as food in the mid-1990s, food containing GMOs has become a significant part of the stock in US, Canadian, and Asian grocery stores. About 70% of US processed food sold contains genetically modified (GM) crops. A revolution in food science and production has been taking place over the past two decades. How did we get here?
What is a SUSAR?
Find out what a SUSAR is and what the list of the qualifiers are for filing a SUSAR during a clinical drug trial.
What is Biotechnology and How Did It Make the...
This article provides a summary or overview of biotechnology or biotech with a description of the start of biotechnology, development of commercial biotechnology, and an overview of the biotech industry. It includes brief summaries of the methods that comprise biotechnology and genetic engineering, biotechnology companies, the medical biotech and agricultural biotechnology industry segments, what a biotech start-up is, GMOs, transgenic organisms, and the connection between biotechnology and drug development.
Food Biotechnology
Many of the changes in food biotechnology have meant indisputable improvements to our safety and health, while others are more controversial.
Fermentation
A broad definition of fermentation in both general and more scientific terms.
Visualizing DNA
There are several different stains that can be used to visualize DNA. The following list explains the choices of stains, and the differences between them.
ISO Certification
Explanation of the ISO standards and QMS certification
Titer
A definition for titer as it applies to the biomedical industry and production of antibodies, proteins, antibiotics and other bioproducts.
DNA Fingerprinting
Explanation of the term DNA fingerprinting and a brief description of the methodology.
Vectors
Vectors are tools for gene transfer during cloning.
Hydrolysis
A definition for enzyme hydrolysis, to explain what kind of biochemical reaction hydrolases catalyze and how that is useful to biotechnology applications.
Polymorphism
The genetic term polymorphism refers to the discovery that there may be several variations in gene sequence for a specific protein.
Nanoparticles Used in Biotechnology
A list of classes of these microscopic particle of matter,from fullerenes to nanorods, used in nanomedical research and other biotechnological applications.
PCR
A definition of the molecular technique known as PCR and its usefulness in various biotechnology applications, forensic science and environmental research.
Nanomedicine and Disease
How nanotechnology is being applied to nanomedicine and the treatment of diseases such as cancer.
Genes Don’t Just Make Proteins
Researchers in the last several years have realized there are whole classes of genes that do not make proteins. Instead, the RNA from these genes performs some direct biological function. These new non-coding RNA genes are revolutionizing genomics.
CRISPR: What's All the Excitement About?
Have you heard of the new genetic engineering tool that generating lots of excitement? Since the discovery of their ability to target and cut DNA, CRISPRs have become the latest rage for genomic researchers. Find out what all the excitement is about. (Posted: Sept 30, 2013)
The Xenotransplantation Debate
A discussion of the ethical and practical issues surrounding the use of animal organs for human transplants (xenotransplantation). Page 2.
Requisites for Superior PCR Results
Adjustments to any of the components of a PCR reaction can alter the quality of the outcome, either improving or diminishing the product yield and quality, or reaction specificity and sensitivity. Parameters that influence the end result can be either physical (i.e. temperature, cycle times) or chemical (i.e. nucleotide or template concentration, type of polymerase enzyme used). The following are several key factors that influence the success of PCR.
Bioremediation
Bioremediation is explained as a branch of environmental biotechnology in which contaminated soil, air and water are treated.
Lyophilization
A definition of lyophilization as it applies to the preservation and storage of microbial cell cultures.
Transformation
Transformation refers to changes in the genetic makeup of a normal cell either through insertion of foreign DNA into a chromosome, or by an alteration that causes tumor cell-like behavior.
Genetic Variation, Disease Genes, and Risk...
Genes make us who we are and small variations in genes do more than just define our difference in physical appearance. They determine our unique physiology, influence our social, personality, and intellectual attributes, make us more susceptible or resistant to particular diseases, and determine our responsiveness to treatment. Personalized medicine attempts tailor an individual’s health care and treatment based on their unique genetics.
Pipelines
An explanation for what pipelines are as they apply to new drug development in the biotechnology industry and how they are used to describe the research and development progress of biotech companies.
Biotech Business Models
Platform, Product and Vertical strategies make up three major biotechnology business models.
Choosing Biotech Stocks
Investing in biotechnology can be a risky business. The following list outlines some suggested criteria to consider when choosing which biotech stocks to buy.
The History of Cloning Research
Twenty years after Dolly the cloned sheep, researchers in Oregon have finally cloned a human embryo. How long have people been working on cloning? Actually, cloning research goes back more than 100 years. Find out about the work leading up to human cloning. (Published: May 21, 2013)
Microinjection
Use of DNA microinjection techniques for gene transfer and creation of transgenic animals.
Run an Agarose Gel for Separation of DNA
Follow these simple steps for running an agarose gel to separate and visualize different size DNA strands.
Freeze Dry a Bacterial Culture
Quick step by step instructions for preservation of bacterial, fungal or yeast cell cultures, by freeze drying (lyophilization).
Make PBS Buffer
PBS is a commonly used buffer for immunohistochemical (IHC) staining, used as a wash solution and for diluting antibodies.
How to Invest in Biotech
Pointers on how to invest in biotech with things to consider before investing in biotech companies or buying biotechnology stocks.
The Fight to Use Maternal Blood for Prenatal...
A simple blood test of a pregnant woman can now identify fetal genetic abnormalities that can produce conditions such as Down's Syndrome. How was this approach developed and who are the companies involved in developing the technology?
The Many Job Descriptions in a Small Biotech...
Advice to those interested in a career in biotechnology, with a biotech startup, or looking to start their own company. Biotech startups require innovative, versatile people able to fulfill a variety of responsibilities and do a lot of different jobs, like the ones listed here.
Top 5 Reasons to Consider Biotech
For anyone interested in investing in, or thinking of pursuing a career in biotech, whether at a large company or a small startup, here are five positive indicators of how viable the industry is today.
Pesticides in GMOs? Yes. So What?
Have some genetically modified crops have been genetically engineered to express insecticide? Yes. Some GMOs express a protein from a bacteria called Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) that kills insects. Is this a reason to be concerned about eating these GM-crops? Not really. Read why there is little reason to be concerned about Bt-GMOs. (Posted: Dec. 30, 2013)
Top 10 Common Biotech Terms You Should Know
You read about advances in biotechnology every day in the newspaper, and hear about it on TV, but sometimes
Playing Around with Genes in Your Spare Time
The emerging trend of DIY biotechnology has some worried and others excited. However, it is just a natural extension of maturing life science research. More and more, individuals are trying to put our ever advancing knowledge and capabilities to design and manipulate living organisms to use in solving everyday problems. Who are these biohackers, what are they working on, and how do they support their efforts? (Posted: Nov. 27, 2013)
Active Ingredients
Active ingredients refers to the chemical makeup of drugs.
Myth: GMOs Are All Similar Somehow
Why are GMOs talked about and thought of as a category? Genetic modification refers to how the strain of plants were made, not what they are. GMOs really have no distinct characteristics as a class yet there are constant debates about whether they are safe, if they should be cultivated, why they should be labeled. It's about time to drop the myth that all GMOs are somehow similar. (Posted: Dec 4, 2013)
Nanotechnology and Stem Cell Applications
A summary of potential uses for nanotechnology in stem cell applications such as tracking and labeling, delivery and controlling the extracellular environment by creating artifical scaffolds or platforms for directing cell differentiation, migration and adhesion. Toxicity of nanoparticles to stem cells is also discussed.
What is Biotechnology?
Definition of biotechnology and a description of the various aspects of the biotech industry.
How Were Genes Discovered?
Experiments with chromosomal material that were primarily responsible for the establishment of DNA as the component that encodes for the structures of proteins.
Delivering New Genes to Cure Disease
Gene therapy offers real promise for curing genetic disorders and treating a wider range diseases. How are new functional genes are put into a patients cells? This article describes the main viral DNA vectors used to make the genetic changes required for gene therapy.
6 Suggestions for Financing a Biotech Startup
An outline suggesting five funding sources for financing a new startup Biotech company.
Ligands
A descriptive definition of ligands and the role they play in biotechnology, particularly in relation to enzyme functions and the catalysis of biochemical reactions.
Roles of Venture Investors
A list of the roles that biotech venture investors play in the development of early- and mid-stage startups. The benefits, and some of the shortfalls, to obtaining venture capital funding for R&D and to promote the growth of a company, are outlined.
Fine-Tuning the Process
Learn the basic theory behind the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) technique for making multiple copies of a gene from a DNA sample. Page 2.
Food Allergies, Intolerance, and Genetic...
Groups concerned about the use of genetically modified organisms (GMOs) often cite concerns about the dangers of unknown allergies from engineered food sources. How significant is this concern? Is it hype or a real danger? (Published: Dec 19, 2013)
Reverse Transcriptase PCR
RT-PCR can mean one of two things in biotechnology. Here's one of the definitions.
What is the Concern over Germ Line Gene Therapy?
As the first gene therapy approaches are nearing FDA approval, it is important to make the distinction between somatic cell and germ line genetic manipulation. Although therapies on sperm and egg cells have tremendous potential, they would require a much more thorough understanding than our current science possesses. Will germ line gene therapy ever be an option?
Knockouts Biotech Style
Gene knockouts are useful tools for studying the causes of genetic diseases, but what exactly are they?
Small Business Technology Development Grants...
Federal SBIR grants can provide much needed seed funding for small biotech start-up businesses. What is the SBIR/STTR program, what types of projects are funded, how much can you get, and who's eligible? Michael Weingarten, the Director of the NCI SBIR program presented all the specifics at a recent conference. (Published: July 31, 2013)
What are Bioindicators?
An introduction to bioindicators and how they are used in the biotechnology industry to detect physiological responses to cellular stressors.
The Human Genome Project
In 1990, a project was initiated to determine the entire sequence of DNA making up the human genome. The human genome project involved participants from laboratories worldwide and resulted in significant advances in DNA screening and sequencing technologies, in addition to the discovery of thousands of new genes.
Early Biotechnological Practices
Five examples of early biotechnological practices that were in place long before the term
Parkinson's Disease
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What is a Retrovirus?
Retroviruses are a special type of RNA virus, that replicate their genome by reverse transcription of their RNA to form DNA which is then incorporated into the genome and transcribed by the host cells which the virus inhabits.
Electrophoresis
Gel electrophoresis is a DNA separation technique, but how does it work?
The Impact of Whole Genome DNA Sequencing on...
As DNA sequencing costs are coming down to the point where this technology can transition from basic research to a routine medical use, there is a lot of discussion how this new in depth information genetic will really affect health care. A couple new studies demonstrate how this technology could be practically used to improve health care of individuals in the next few years.
Protein That Eliminates Plaque-Forming Amyloids...
The lysosome receptor SORLA protein identifies and eliminates misfolded beta-amyloids associated with Alzheimer's plaque formation
Bioethics
The term bioethics defined. Biotech / Biomedical.
SWOT analysis
A SWOT analysis is a business tool for strategic planning.
Acid-Bath Stem Cell May Be Washed Up
Acid may not be able to turn normal cells in to stem cells. Irregularities surfacing about the recent study claiming it could suggest the data is unreliable.
The Individual Genome Sequencing Business
For several hundred to several thousand dollars, you can go online and order a service kit to have your DNA analyzed. How does this work? What do these companies provide and what do you have to do? This article explains direct to consumer genetic analysis.
What is a Clone?
In genetic engineering, what does it mean to create a clone?
Synthetic Biology: New Critters from Genetic...
How difficult is it to make a new organism from scratch? It is routine now to synthesize whole genes, so why not whole genomes to make completely new organisms. Synthetic biology attempts to emphasize the engineering aspect of genetic engineering to design and produce biologically engineered solutions to pressing global problems. How feasible is this? (Posted: Nov 5, 2013)
Recombinant
Recombinant is a term used to describe a bioengineering technique which involves combining DNA strands from different origins.
Liposomes
Liposomes are phospholipid bilayers that have formed a closed vesicle. Polymeric micelles are a type of nanoparticle that can be used for drug delivery.
GMO Tomatoes to Improve Your Health
Tomatoes genetically engineered to produce anthocyanins may be better for you than regular tomatoes
Choosing an Electrophoresis Buffer
There are different types of buffers you can use for agarose gel electrophoresis. Here's how to decide which one to use.
Xenotransplantation
An explanation for xenotransplantation and the bioethical issues surrounding the use of animal organs and tissues for human transplants.
Write a Business Plan
Every biotech startup should begin with a thorough business plan to guide the achievement of milestones and obtaining research funding by satisfying potential venture and angel investors, granting agencies and loan institutions. Check this planning outline for a list of items to include in your business plan.
Pressure from Patients and Payers Is Changing...
An increased understanding of disease, escalating healthcare costs and informed patient groups are having a transformative impact on the development and approvals of new therapeutics. What do pharmaceutical and biotech companies need to do to account for these changes to maximize the success of their drug development programs? This summary of a panel discussion at the Biotech Showcase on the Changing Dynamics of the Drug Development Ecosystem provides some insight. (Posted: Jan 22, 2014)
What is Zoning?
An explanation of what zoning is, and how it affects commercial land use.
Epigenetics
A definition of the term epigenetics, and how epigenetic marks in eukaryotes control transcription. Also discussed are the relationships between studies of how gene expression is regulated, stem cell research, and cloning.
Growing New Bodily Organs in the Lab
Right now the only option for many patients with deteriorating or damaged hearts, lung, livers, kidneys, and other organs, is a transplant. This procedure creates its own host of health issues, not to mention that organs are not easy obtain. However, researchers are working toward an alternative--growing organ out of a patient's own cells in the lab. (Posted: June 29, 2013)
Top 5 Five Reasons to do a Ph.D.
For those considering doctoral studies, here are five reasons to go all the way in graduate school and complete a Ph.D.
Plasmids
The role of plasmids as vectors for gene transfer.
Optimizing Enzyme Processes
Four approaches to optimizing an enzyme process for commercial production, ranging from natural selection to fine-tuned molecular-level genetic manipulations.
Biotechnology Clusters in North America
A list of the top biotechnology hubs in North America. Each cluster is an active site of R&D, job and investment opportunities in the life sciences or agricultural biotech.
Sequester
An explanation for the word sequester as it is applied in scientific terms in the biotechnology and bioremediation industries.
Biotechnology "Firsts"
Biotechnology research would not be where it is today without each one of these significant "firsts".
Valentine's Day: A Holiday for the Heart
Care for both your romantic and physical heart on Valentine's Day
Green Fluorescent Protein
Green fluorescent protein (GFP, from jellyfish) and other fluorescent proteins have become important bioindicators in biomedical and biotechnology research. The protein exhibits strong green fluorescence under ultraviolet (UV) light and can be used to track cells, and study gene expression (transcription) or track cloned genes in transgenic organisms and GMOs.
Fullerenes
Carbon nanotubes and buckyballs belong to a class of carbon-based nanoparticles known as the fullerenes.
Before You Buy Laboratory Equipment
A list of resources and suggestions for finding used lab equipment.
Career Opportunities in Biotechnology and Drug...
Publisher's Site This book is an excellent resource for science job seekers in all areas of the biotechnology
Have a Care for Your Heart on Valentine's Day
The heart has been a symbol of love and desire since ancient times. Take a few minutes on Valentine's Day to tend to both the romantic and physical needs of this critical organ that sustains us.
The 6 Big Biotech Stories of 2013: Stories That...
What were the biggest and most exciting happening in biotechnology and biomedicine over the past year? Check out these six developments that shook up bioscience and biomedical research.
Molecular methods that Make RFLP Possible
Molecular techniques that make it possible to perform RFLP analysis.
Why all the excitement about stem cells?
Stem cell research and regenerative medicine is a controversial bioethical issue in the biomedical field. Find out why doctors and scientists are excited about the future of stem cells and medicine.
Why Is Drug Development So Expensive
The high cost of drug development. Why does it cost so much to develop new medicines?
Liquid Crystals
Liquid crystal pharmaceuticals (LCPs) are drug delivery systems that use organic liquid crystals for safe drug delivery.
Metabolism Boosting Hormone Found
Researchers find hormone that increase body's metabolism in response to exercise.
The Value of Personal Genomic Analysis
Genes define our individual traits, predispositions, and characteristics, but how much do they actually reveal? What insight about yourself does having your DNA analyzed provide? Science has started to make inroads toward understanding the implication of different genetic variations between individuals but how useful is this information when applied to a single person’s DNA?
Smart Polymers
An explanation of how smart polymers are specially designed stimulus-responsive macromolecules with an unlimited number of potential applications in biotechnology.
IPSCs
A quick discussion on what IPSCs are and how they are used in stem cell research, regenerative medicine and tissue engineering.
What is Orphan Drug Status?
Orphan Drug Status is given to certain drugs undergoing development in the pharmaceutical industry. Find out what Orphan Drug Status is and what incentives are available to biotech companies obtaining this designation from the US FDA.
Dendrimers
Dendrimers are highly branched nanoparticles whose polymer branches consist of molecular hooks that can target specific biomolecules.
The Role of Proteasomes
How protein degradation by proteasomes impacts cellular processes like transcription and cell differentiation.
What is ACI and How is it Used to Treat Cancer?
ACI, or Active Cellular Immunotherapy is a new development in biomedical research and is being applied for treatment of cancer. Also known as Active Specific Immunotherapy.
Biomedical Applications for Smart Polymers
A description of the possible and current uses for smart polymers in the biotechnology industry. Types of stimulus responsive polymers and nanoparticles are explained and their potential for use in biomedicine is discussed.
Green Biotech Products and Services
Green products and services produced by the biotechnology industry, for those wishing to invest in environmentally friendly technologies.
IPO
Initial public offering, or IPO, is a commonly used term when referring to new companies and their entry into the stock exchange, but what exactly is an IPO?
Novozymes
A case study on the Danish bioproducts company, Novozymes, a global leader in enzyme technology, and producer of recombinant enzymes for industrial uses such as detergents, animal feed and biofuel production. The former leader in insulin production is renowned for its focus on environmental and social sustainability.
Book Review
The history of biotechnology began with George Washington Carver, the first scientist to concentrate on the development of bioproducts.
New Biotech Developments Anticipated This Year
What's ahead for biotech in 2014?
Stem Cell Therapy Clinic Flees to Mexico to...
Texas-based Celltex Therapeutics flees to Mexico to avoid entanglement with FDA over its adult stem cell therapy treatments.
BGI Plans to Sequence the World
In less than 15 years, BGI has grown from a small research institute in Beijing China to the largest DNA sequence provider in the world. How did this Chinese company, now based in Shenzhen, become a DNA sequencing powerhouse, and what does its future look like? (Published: Sept 18, 2013)
Breeding Versus Engineering to Make Drought...
Three strains of drought resistant corn are current making their way to farmer’s fields. Two of the strains, from Syngenta and Pioneer, were developed using advanced genetic breeding approaches, whereas Monsanto’s corn was developed using genetic engineering. While both approaches were somewhat successful, it is clear these are the first generation of these plant hybrids. It is likely that further improvements could be made using each approach or a combination of the two.
Six Advantages to Hydrogels as Therapeutic Agents
Once used for simple encapsulation of cells or drugs, in homogeneous materials, todays hydrogels are more complex smart polymers with different types of ligands and cross-links allowing for highly regulated structures and different bioresponsive functionalities. What makes hydrogels such a great choice for development of therapeutic devices?
What is Sustainability?
Sustainability is defined in terms of corporate activities and sustainabile business approaches that take into account the environmental, social and economic impacts of decisions and processes.
Nanoshells
Nanoshells are used in nanomedicine as a tool for radiation therapy because of their ability to target tumors.
Blastocyst
Blastocyst definition and a description of how embryos at this stage of development are used in stem cell research.
Advantages to DNA Vaccines
The advantages to using DNA vaccines to stimulate immunological responses to infectious and chronic diseases.
Designer Babies
Developments in stem cell research and in vitro techniques for reproduction have led us to the theory that sometime in the near future, wanna-be parents will be able to create designer babies with the specific traits they desire.
Extremophiles
A definition for the term extremophile.
Direct-to-Consumer Genetic Testing
Find out about the growing niche of companies that offer personal genetic analysis which provides information about disease risks, health conditions, ancestry, and other individual traits. This developing direct-to-consumer (DTC) DNA analysis business breaks old models of how health tests are provided and offers any individual direct access to sophisticated DNA results.

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