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Dyadic International Inc.

Unique Propagules Enhance Enzyme Yields


Dyadic International Inc.

C1 Chrysosporium Propagules. ©2010, Dyadic International Inc.

Another of the special features of the C1 clones is their ability to produce high yields of product. Part of this is due to the high excretion rate of the fungi, since a natural, random mutation encountered during development caused a morphological change in the fungi growth pattern. Instead of growing hyphae, C1 forms propagules which enable easier nutrient uptake and aeration during culturing. This is possible because the fungi are less viscous in culture and easier to stir. The propagules also facilitate excretion of product, resulting in 5-10-times more protein per gram of cells than before the mutation, or up to 100 g/L protein secreted from a whole cell fermentation/culture system scaled up to 150,000 L.

Dyadic used gene sequencing methods to decode the entire C1 fungal strain genome in 2005. According to Dyadic, the code contains nearly twice as many genes as Trichoderma making this strain very versatile. Dyadic has two major licence agreements, with Codexis and Abengoa Bioenergy. An up-front deposit by Codexis allows the company the cash flow to invest in further research and expand their pipeline of products. Dyadic believes that acceptance of their technology by these companies adds validation to their research results. Dyadic also collaborates with The Scripps Research Institute (TSRI), in the USA. Codexis is in partnership with Shell, who also works with biofuels giant Iogen, to find the best enzymes and processes possible for biofuel production.

The company supplies clients in the biofuels, biochemicals, textiles, and pulp and paper industries. In September 2009, C1 was given GRAS (generally regarded as safe) status from the Food and Drug Administration, giving them the green light to sell to the food/feed and drug industries.

In addition to making cellulosic sugars and industrial enzymes, Dyadic is turning to development of the C1 line for production of antibodies and vaccines. Until now, many antibodies are being produced using CHO (Chinese Hamster Ovary) cells, because they glycosylate proteins similarly to human cells. Dyadic is hoping to replace these systems with C1 because it is easier to optimize the C1 system, which has a shorter fermentation time (5-6 days versus 15-21 days), and can function under a wider range of growth conditions. The CHO cell line is also prone to potentially infectious prions and downstream protein purification issues.

Overall, Dyadic strives to be a technology provider, supplying optimized versions of their C1 platform to a variety of industries for innumerable purposes. Dyadic has provided manufactured commercial enzymes since 1994. After 15 years of development, and millions of dollars invested, Dyadic has a library of proprietary C1 cell lines and associated vectors for on-demand genetic programming.

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